Sidney Poiter, born February 20, 1927, was one of the most important film actors of the twentieth century. Not only did he deliver memorable performances, breaking wide open opportunities for other actors of color, he also brought an expansion of people’s conception of what African-Americans could accomplish. That he was also at the forefront of the civil rights movement only makes him a role model for anyone in society, let alone in the arts. Here’s just a touch of his backstory and a highlight of one of his finest accomplishments, the original Broadway production of Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun, in today’s “Theatre Yesterday and Today.”
Sidney Poitier being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom
by President Barack Obama (2009).
It was a slow and steady rise for Poitier beginning in 1946 with his Broadway debut as part of a 65-member “all-Negro” cast (as it was advertised) in a revival of Aristophanes’ Lysistrata. The Afro-Bahamian actor was twenty-nine years old and having only moved with his family to Miami at age fifteen, he was still struggling with his accent and stage fright. In a story he relates in his autobiography, This Life, Poitier was so terrified on opening night that he forget his first line (one of only a few he had in the play). He made something up on the spot, and in his humiliation, felt he’d let everyone down. He was so upset, he went home and didn’t take a bow with the company at the curtain call. The next day, he was told no one cared, and a producer in attendance liked him so much that he hired Poitier to replace in the Broadway play Anna Lucasta, which due to a subsequent touring production, kept him employed for three years.
Breaking through in films with his performance in 1955’s The Blackboard Jungle, Poitier began piling up major credits by 1959 when he was in the rarified position to be approached to star in a new play. It helped that earlier in the year, Poitier became the first Black actor nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor in The Defiant Ones. This made him not only a star, but one who everyone was watching closely. Every role he took not only defined him as an actor, but put him in the unenviable position of having to be an exemplar of his race (for the record, he is Bahamian-American, having been born in the Bahamas).
The play was A Raisin in the Sun, written by a young Black playwright, Lorraine Hansberry (only twenty-nine at the time). Once Poitier’s participation was secured, not only did it mean it would get produced, but it would be presented on Broadway (excepting for one role), with an all-Black cast. Sure there was precedent for this, but in this particular case, with the world watching Sidney Poitier’s every move, the play was under undue pressure to perform well. If it closed out of town, it might have led people to say Poitier wasn’t the same sort of draw at the higher price level of theatre tickets he was at the movies. Or that Broadway was no place to test young African-American writers, let alone a women. Lloyd Richards, the play’s first-time director, also happened to be African-American. It would be the first play by a Black woman to open on Broadway, and the first Broadway play with a Black director. It was in this pressure cooker that the work began to bring the show to New York.
David J. Cogen, Lloyd Richards, Philip Rose, Sidney Poitier and Lorraine Hansberry in a publicity photo for “A Raisin in the Sun” (1959).
It is common knowledge that the original production was a great success. Ms. Hansberry was anointed an important voice and it was only due to her tragic death from cancer at age thirty-four that we were not treated to more work from this gifted writer. But there were hardships in bringing the play to Broadway, well-chronicled in 2001’s You Can’t Do That on Broadway!, written fifty-two years later by the show’s principal producer, Philip Rose. In it, he tells of how difficult it was raising the necessary funds and how arduous the out of town tryouts in Philadelphia, New Haven and Chicago were. But A Raisin in the Sun got to the promised land of Broadway, opening triumphantly on March 11, 1959 at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre. Besides Poitier, the play reads now as a future who’s who of many groundbreaking artists. Among its cast members, Louis Gossett would later become the first African-American actor to win a Best Supporting Actor Oscar for his performance in An Officer and a Gentleman; Diana Sands went on to Broadway stardom, culminating in her portrayal as Saint Joan in 1968 at Lincoln Center, before she, too (like Hansberry) died from cancer before the age of forty; and Ruby Dee, who gave us a lifetime of important roles on the stage and screen and who (alongside her husband, Ossie Davis — the actor that assumed the role of Walter Younger Jr. when Poitier left the original production) was at the forefront of the campaign for human rights in this country. Also in the cast was thirteen-year-old Glynn Turman, who has had a rich career and won an Emmy fifty years after his Broadway debut in A Raisin in the Sun for HBO’s In Treatment, and is also on the short lists for a 2020 Oscar nomination for Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom. And then there was Claudia McNeil, who at the time of the play’s premiere was already a leading African-American actress in the theatre. Her understudy, Beah Richards, would later portray Sidney Poitier’s mother in Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award. All in all — an exceptional cast.
Ruby Dee and Sidney Poitier in “A Raisin in the Sun” (1959).
In his memoir, Rose tells what an “improbability” his career as a theatre producer was by way of A Raisin in the Sun. As a Jew from the Lower East Side of Manhattan, he marvels how he possessed the audacity to think he could mount such a problematic show without ever having produced anything in his life (he had been a record executive). But alongside David J. Cogan, an accountant, they made history together. According to his New York Times obituary, “Rose had known the playwright, Lorraine Hansberry, since they had both worked in a summer camp in the Catskills, he as a singer on the entertainment staff, she in the dining room. She confessed to him that she had literary dreams.”
Beautiful, right? But the rejoinder from Rose puts it in proper perspective. According to his wife, his response to Hansberry was “I hope you do become a writer, because you’re a lousy waitress.”
In the book, Rose recounts the mystery behind what drove him to take on the play, musing on whether his days as a young man doing bill collecting in poor Washington, D.C. neighborhoods gave him insight into what was going on in the black community. “Why I was so open to becoming this person, I have no idea. I also don’t know why any of those people, given the circumstances under which they met me, cared enough to reach out, to enlighten me, and to point me in a new direction. What I do know is how grateful I am for what was done for me by a group of generous, remarkable people who happened to be black. And while I don’t know where or who they now are, I know that for anything important I may have done or will do with my life, I am trying to say ‘thank you’ to them.”
The 1961 poster for the film version.
Due to Rose’s diligence, A Raisin in the Sun is now a classic of world theatre, recorded for posterity on film in 1961 (with nearly the entire original cast intact). Two subsequent television versions and two major award winning Broadway revivals have continued to keep it in the public’s eye.
And to Sidney Poitier, who helped immeasurably by lending his towering presence to A Raisin in the Sun nearly sixty-four ago, best wishes for a healthy and happy day today. “Happy Birthday, Sir.”
If you enjoy these columns, check out Up in the Cheap Seats: A Historical Memoir of Broadway, available at Amazon.com in hardcover, softcover and e-book. And please feel free to follow me here and email me with comments or questions at Ron@ronfassler.org.